Desktop Linux, also Linux on the desktop, is where the Linux operating system is installed on a personal computer and is setup for personal use. The term is intended to clarify this usage from other roles, such as, using Linux as a server. The two roles are similar at their core, because they rely on the Linux kernel. However, desktop Linux will usually have more "end user" software packages installed. Some Linux distributions have targeted the desktop role specifically. Other distributions include a superset of all of the software available for the platform. In that case, the user may be given the choice to select either a "desktop" or "server" type when the operating system is installed.

Why we need Free GNU/Linux Desktop ?
Open Standards

Open Standards:
GNU/Linux uses only Open Standards in its implementation of softwares. Such as ANSI Standard IEEE Standard IETF Standard POSIX Standard

GNU/Linux comes with thousands of freesoftwares built in. you need not purchase any software from outside. with freesoftware you can contribute back to project in any manner you wish, be it financial, development, testing and documentation

Applications which you will be using in day to day operations are, Web Browser - Mozilla Firefox Office software - Openoffice Audio/Video Player - VLC Player Image Editor - Gimp
What Is Samba?
Samba implements the CIFS network protocol. By supporting this protocol, Samba enables computers running Unix-based operating systems to communicate with Microsoft Windows and other CIFS-enabled clients and servers. Some examples of common services offered by Samba are:
  • Share one or more directory trees
  • Provide a Distributed Filesystem (MS-DFS) namespace
  • Centrally manage printers, print settings, and their associated drivers for access from Windows clients
  • Assist clients with network browsing
  • Authenticate clients logging onto a Windows domain
  • Provide or assist with Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) name-server resolution

The Samba suite also includes client tools that allow users on a Unix system to access folders and printers that Windows systems and Samba servers offer on the network.

What Can Samba Do for Me?
As explained earlier, Samba can help Windows and Unix computers coexist in the same network.[*] However, there are some specific reasons why you might want to set up a Samba server on your network:
  • You do not needor wish to pay fora full-fledged Windows server, yet you need the file and print functionality that one provides.
  • You want to provide a common area for data or user directories to transition from a Windows server to a Unix one, or vice versa.
  • You want to share printers among Windows and Unix workstations.
  • You want to integrate Unix and Windows authentication, maintaining a single database of user accounts that works with both systems.
  • You want to network Unix, Windows, Macintosh (OS X), and other systems using a single protocol.

What is LDAP?
LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. As the name suggests, it is a lightweight protocol for accessing directory services, specifically X.500-based directory services. LDAP runs over TCP/IP or other connection oriented transfer services. The nitty-gritty details of LDAP are defined in RFC2251 "The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3)."

How does LDAP work?
LDAP directory service is based on a client-server model. One or more LDAP servers contain the data making up the directory information tree (DIT). The client connects to servers and asks it a question. The server responds with an answer and/or with a pointer to where the client can get additional information (typically, another LDAP server). No matter which LDAP server a client connects to, it sees the same view of the directory; a name presented to one LDAP server references the same entry it would at another LDAP server. This is an important feature of a global directory service, like LDAP.

Network File System (NFS)
What is Network File System?
Network File System easily allows to share data between several computers. For example, a user logged on a network won't need to log on a specific computer: via NFS, he will access his home directory (we say exported) on the machine he is working at. The first file servers were developed in the 1970s, and in 1985 Sun Microsystems created the file system called “Network File System” (NFS) which became the first widely used network file system.

How It Works?
NFS consists of at least two main parts: a server and one or more clients. The client remotely accesses the data that is stored on the server machine. In order for this to function properly a few processes have to be configured and running.
The server has to be running the following daemons:

Daemon Description
nfsd The NFS daemon which services requests from the NFS clients. Mountd The NFS mount daemon which carries out the requests that nfsd(8) passes on to it. Rpcbind This daemon allows NFS clients to discover which port the NFS server is using.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
What is FTP?
FTP, a standard protocol, is the simplest way to exchange files between computers on the Internet. Like the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which transfers displayable Web pages and related files, and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which transfers email, FTP is an application protocol that uses the Internet's TCP/IP protocols. FTP is commonly used to transfer Web page files from their creator to the computer that serves the pages to everyone on the Internet. It's also commonly used to download programs and other files to your computer from other servers. As a user, you can use FTP with a simple command line interface (for example, from the Windows MS-DOS Prompt window) or with a commercial program that offers a graphical user interface. Your Web browser can also make FTP requests to download programs you select from a Web page. Using FTP, you can also update (delete, rename, move, and copy) files at a server. You need to log on to an FTP server. FTP is usually provided as part of a suite of programs that come with TCP/IP.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
SMTP is a short for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol and it is used to transfer e-mail messages between computers. It is a text based protocol and in this, message text is specified along with the recipients of the message. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is a 'push' protocol and it cannot be used to 'pull' the messages from the server. A procedure of queries and responses is used to send the message between the client and the server. An end user's e-mail client or the relaying server's Mail Transport Agents can act as an SMTP client which is used to initiate a TCP connection to the port 25 of the server. SMTP is used to send the message from the mail client to the mail server and an e-mail client using the POP or IMAP is used to retrieve the message from the server.

HyperText Transfer Protocol, the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands. For example, when you enter a URL in your browser, this actually sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and transmit the requested Web page. The other main standard that controls how the World Wide Web works is HTML, which covers how Web pages are formatted and displayed.

HTTP is called a stateless protocol because each command is executed independently, without any knowledge of the commands that came before it. This is the main reason that it is difficult to implement Web sites that react intelligently to user input. This shortcoming of HTTP is being addressed in a number of new technologies, including ActiveX,Java,JavaScript and cookies.

Using these servers we can configure our own organization network, for example we have explained 500-User organization network.

The 500 User Office

The 500 User Office

The above figure has contained 500-user organizatoin Network. This organization network have been configured by all the linux servers, [DNS, Samba, LDAP, DHCP, NFS, Firewall, Printer] Which we have explained adove in this documents. The PDC [Primary Domain Controller ] Server connecting internet through the firewall. This 500-user large network has divided in three sections, these sections have a different network IP ranges address. The 300 users Property Insurance gruop network has configured range network. The 50 user Accounting network has configued range netowrk. The 150 user Financial Services network has configured range network.
Turtle Linux Labs provides Storage solutions for SMBs and Enterprises. Again we strongly emphasise on GNU/Linux products. We provide solutions to build and architect IP Storage solutions and NAS solutions.

Why you need Storage Solutions ?
To consolidate datacenter infrastructure
To minimize datacenter CAPEX(capital expenditure) and OPEX (operations expenditure)
To enhance dataprotection
To reduce power consumption
Turtle Linux Labs provides industry standard security mechanisms in Desktop, Servers, Network and Storage using FreeIPA and SELinux.

GNU/Linux Security product review,
FreeIPA is a Red Hat sponsored open source project which aims to provide an easily managed Identity, Policy and Audit (IPA) package primarily targeted towards networks of Linux and Unix computers. FreeIPA can be compared to Novell's Identity Manager or Microsoft's Active Directory in that the goals and mechanisms used are similar.

Security-Enhanced Linux
Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a Linux feature that provides a variety of security policies, including U.S. Department of Defense style mandatory access controls, through the use of Linux Security Modules (LSM) in the Linux kernel.
Turtle Linux Labs provides network solutions based on Freesoftware Network router called Vyatta.

What is Vyatta?
Simply put, Vyatta has commoditized router, firewall and VPN deployment in the same way that Linux commoditized the operating system market. Vyatta open-source networking offers you an alternative to over-priced, inflexible products from proprietary vendors

Vyatta can help you:
  • Affordably scale large BGP implementations
  • Attach your small office to the Internet
  • Keep your network safe with a stateful-inspection firewall
  • Securely connect remote offices with VPN
  • Avoid costly proprietary networking upgrades
  • Run virtualized networking environments in Xen and VMware
  • Add networking and security to blade servers in your data center
  • Offer network-based managed security services
  • Add network redundancy regardless of vendor equipment
  • Build your own best-of-breed Branch office solution
We provide outsourcing of talents on the following areas,
Linux Device Drivers
Redhat Linux Administration
Filesystems development
Cluster filesystems
Storage Testing (NAS, IP SAN)
Storage Development (SMIS, XAM)